How Plants Reprogram their Immune Systems to Fight Microbes
Bacteria, Viruses, and Other Types of harmful microbes always destroy crops and plants. when a plant detects a micro bacterial invasion, the life-depending backbone component inside it (Protein) goes under some abnormal changes and alteration.
You can say Plants fight them by Reprogramming their cells
Xinnian Dong and Lead author Jinlong Wang explain how some crucial elements found inside plant cells help to reprogram their protein-making machinery to reject/fight foreign objects. They discovered this in their recent studies which are published in the journal cell.
Bacterial and Fungal Diseases Reduce Crop Productivity by 15% annually and If we calculate economic loss, it causes a loss of 220 billion dollars to the whole world economy.
Dong says: Plants totally depend on their immune system to defend themselves from harmful bacteria and microbes.
Plants do not have immune cells like animals or humans that can travel from one place to another to reach the infected site. Circulation is not possible in Plants, so every cell should have the ability to fight and defend itself from microbes.
Plants hierarchize Defence above Growth/Development under attack, so cells start making new proteins for defensive mechanisms and stop/slows down the production of old proteins responsible for plant development.
The proteins produced by the cells perform different functions such as the Development process acting as a chemical messenger, identifying foreign molecules, transporting material in and out, etc.
Genetic instruction present in the DNA which is stiffed inside the cell nucleus is translated into a molecule called mRNA which helps to make a certain type of protein. Then a component ribosome carries this message and converts it into a protein in the cytoplasm.
When a plant detects an attack a molecule which normally responsible to conduct the normal production of protein gets deleted by itself and this prevents the production of the typical protein that plants make at normal times.
According to Dong, fighting an infection is very harmful to the plant because if you fight too much you will ultimately consume all the major resources and then, very few resources are left for the process of photosynthesis of the plant and its life-saving process.
Plants whose immune system is more active, also reduce their growth because they Generate too many defensive proteins.